?ᏩᎴᎳ
A variety of hummingbirds from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur (Artforms of Nature)
A variety of hummingbirds from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur (Artforms of Nature)
Scientific classification
ᎴᎬᎾᎻ: gantlaiia
ᏆᎢᎳᎻ: Chordata
ᏗᎦᎪᏗ: Aves
ᎣᎸᏙ: Apodiformes
ᏥᏓᎾᎷ: Trochilidae
ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, 1825
Genera

Many, see text.

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏍᏆᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏏᏓᏁᎸᎯ Trochilidae. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ-ᎤᏃᎴ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎵᏍᏓᎯᎨ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ, 15 80 ᎢᏧᏩᎪᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏔᎵᏁ (ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ). ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏐᎢ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᏩᏎᎸᎯ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ, ᎯᎠ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Ꮝ ᏅᏏᎾᏒ ᏛᎦ ᎤᏓᎪᏂᏲᎢᏍᏗ ᎠᏏᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎶᏒᏍᏛᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᏙᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎾᏗtᏍᎬ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎬ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎪᎥᎩ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎨᎦᏓᏅᏖᏗ ᎧᏬᎳᏕᏍᎬ ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ.

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ attracted ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ—ᎢᎦᎢ ᎦᎪᏘ, Heliconia, bromeliad, verbena, fuchsia, ᎤᎪᏗᏗ penstemon—ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏗᎦᎪᎯᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎵᏍᎨᏛ pollinator, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏛᎩ-throated ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ ᏨᏍᎪᏱ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ ᎨᎳᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏲᎵ.

ᎯᎠ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᏩᎴᎳ (Mellisuga helenae) ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎡᎶᎯ, ᎦᏛᏍᎬᎢ 1.8 ᏄᏓᎨᏒ.

ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏴ-ᎢᎩᏛ ᏂᎬᏁᎸ ᏩᎴᎳ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ-ᎦᏛᎢ, ᎦᏙᏗ ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗᏇ 3 g ᎠᎴ ᎤᎭ ᏂᎦᏅᎯᏒ 10-12 cm (3.5-4 ᎢᏯᏏᏔᏗᏍᏗ).

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ Ꮭ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ. ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎪᏢᏗ ᏕᎦᏅᎦᎵᏍᎬ woven ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏡᎬ ᎤᏩᏂᎦᎸ. ᏔᎵ ᎤᏁᎬ ᏧᏪᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏝᏅᎯ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎦᎾᏆᏘᏍᏗ ᎠᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏂᎦᏛ ᏥᏍᏆ ᏧᏪᏥ, ᎠᎴ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎤᏙᎯᏳ ᎡᏆ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏂᎬᎢ. ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏔᏅ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ 14-19 ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ.

Contents

ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢEdit

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎵᏐᏆᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎦᏅᏙᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎵᎶᎯ ᎠᏣᏅᏙ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎡᎶᎯ. ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᏧᎸᏌᏓ coloured. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎨᏴ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ duller.

ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ Ꮎ ᏄᎶᏍᎨᏗᏴᎾ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᏬᏚ ᎦᎸᏈᏍᏗ, fairylike ᎠᏓᏙᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ gemlike brilliance. ᎠᏥᎸᎭ-ᎦᏛᎢ Awlbill, ᎩᎦᎨ-ᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏩᎴᎳ, ᎠᏣᏅᏙ-ᏂᎯ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ, Brazilian ᎩᎦᎨ, ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ-crowned ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎩ, ᎠᏍᏆᏂᎪᏒᏗ ᎠᎲᏲᎵᏓ, ᎤᏥᏍᏓᎷᎩᏍᎬ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ, ᎠᎴ ᎩᎨᏍᏗ-throated Sunangel ᎠᎴ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏚᎾᏙᎥ ᎢᎬᎾᏔᏅᎯ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎯ ᎤᎾᏓᏟᏌᎲ.

ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓEdit

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ intensively ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ aerodynamic ᎦᎾᏄᎪᏨᎢ: ᏂᎦᏛᎢᎪᎯᏳᏙᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ filmed ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ-ᎦᏣᏄᎳ video ᏗᏓᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ.

ᎠᏃᏪᎵᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ, biophysicist Douglas Warrick ᎠᎴ ᎠᏥᏅᏏᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᎦᏎᏍᏔᏅᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏩᎴᎳ, Selasphorus rufus, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏃᎸᎥᏍᎬ ᎧᏂᎬᎾᎥ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ velocimetry techniques ᎠᎴ investigated ᎯᎠ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ generated ᎾᎿ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏤᎵ upstroke ᎠᎴ downstroke.

ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏍᏆᏛ Ꮎ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᏗᎧᏃᎮᏗ ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏔᏅ 75% ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ downstroke ᎠᎴ 25% ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ upstroke: ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᎬᏱᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏁᎵᏒ (ᎤᏍᏆᏂᎪᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏛᎬᎢ) Ꮎ ᎠᏌᎳᏙᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏛᎩ generated ᎢᎦᏘᎭ ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᏔᎵ ᏓᏓᏁᏟᎥᏴᏎᎬ ᎯᎠ wingbeat ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ. ᎪᎯ ᎥᏩᏘᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ Ꮎ ᏩᎴᎳ' ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏠᏱ , ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵᏛ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ, Ꮎ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏔᏬᏗ ᏩᏐᎳ. ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᎿᎢ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏧᏓᎴᎿᎢ avian ᎠᏰᎸ ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ. [1]

ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯEdit

ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ, ᏩᎴᎳ ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎤᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏩᎦᎸᎳᏗᏴ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏂᎦᏛ ᎡᎿᎢ ᎡᎥ, ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎠᏓᏠᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎪᏯᏛ. ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏓᏅᏙᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 1260 ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ, ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏌᎪᏂᎨ-throated ᏩᎴᎳ [2]. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎣᏤᎵ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ ᎢᎦ, ᎠᎴ ᎿᏛᎦ Ꮎ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎤᎭ ᎠᏓᏩᏛᎯᏓᏍᏗ ᎢᏯᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎠᏂᏥᎸᏍᎩ ᏧᎩᏨᏅᏓ. ᎾᎾᎢ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎢᏳᏊ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎢᏧᏟᎶᏛ ᎤᏣᏘᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎠᎪᎾ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᏓᏂᏲᎱᏍᎦ. ᏱᏂᎬᏛᎾ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᏍᎦᏃᎳ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎾᎾᎢ ᏒᏃᏱ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬᎫ ᏐᎢ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᏳᏊ ᏱᏂᎦᎳᏍᏗ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏴᏍᏗ ᏧᏓᏗᎩᏓ-ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᎾᏅᏛ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᏋ. ᎾᎯᏳᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ, ᎯᎠ heartrate ᎠᎴ ᏓᎬᏩᎶᏛ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ ᎠᎴ ᎢᏧᎳ slowed dramatically (ᎯᎠ heartrate ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏙᏗ 50-180 ᎠᏓᏠᎯᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎢᏯᏔᏬᏍᏔᏅ), ᎠᎦᏲᎳᏗᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎤᏚᎳᏗ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ.

ᏗᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ' ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏛᏛᎲᏍᎩ ᎢᏳᏃ migrating ᎩᎦᎨ-throated ᏩᎴᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏓᏓᎿᏩᏍᏛ 800 km (500 ᏑᏟᎶᏛ) ᎯᎠ ᏰᎵ ᎤᏝᏅᏛ ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂᎢ ᎾᎿ nonstop ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏠᎨᏏ ᏄᏍᏛ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎧᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏛᏁ. ᎪᎯ ᏩᎴᎳ, ᎾᏍᎩᏯᎢ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎠᏛᏅᎢᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ, ᏓᏓᎾᏅ ᎦᎸᎳᏗᏢ ᎦᎵᏦᎯᏓ ᎢᏯᏓᏛᏁᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎪᏛᏙᏗ, ᎾᎥᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎧᏁᏉᎩ Ꮝ ᏄᏓᎨᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏣᏘ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ 40 50 ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎤᏃᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᏯᏛᎾ kanquotsegi ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᎦᏃᎯᎸᏒ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ. (Skutch, 1973)

ᎠᏍᏓᏅᏅEdit

 
ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏲᎵ
 
ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᏁᏍᎩᎸᏒ ᎬᏙᏗ ᏔᎵ ᎤᏓᏩᏗᏍᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Santa Monica, CA

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ Alaska ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ Tierra del Fuego, ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬ Indies. ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎡᎷᏪᎢ ᎡᏍᎦᏂ. ᎧᏃᎯᏯᏍᏗ ᏒᏃᏱ ᎡᎯ ᏅᏙ, ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ Cuba ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ Bahamas, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎩᎦᎨ-throated ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᏂᏁᏉᎬ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ. ᎯᎠ ᎬᎿᎨ-chinned ᏩᎴᎳ, Ꮝ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎦᏃᏢᏥᏙᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏓᎴ migrant, ᎨᏒᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏭᏕᎵᎬᏗᏢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ.

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎯᎠ Ꭴ.. ᎠᎴ ᎨᎾᏓ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎤᏴᎸ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎪᎳ, ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᏂᎦᏰᏙᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ warmest ᎦᏙᎯ ᎤᏔᏂᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ. ᎯᎠ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏩᎴᎳ ᏓᎾᏛᏁᎵᏍᎬ kanquotsegi ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗᏱ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎪᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎸᎬᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏫᏒᏗ ᎧᏃᎮᎭ, ᎤᏟ ᎬᏰᎸᏗ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏄᎵᏍᏔᏅ kanquotsegi ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ ᎤᏚᎩ ᏗᎦᎬᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᎾᎥᎢ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏁᎸ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏆᎫᏔᏅᏒ, ᏗᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ Ꮎ migrated ᎧᎸᎬ ᏯᏓᎢᏗᏏ ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏊ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏩᎵᏃᎯᏯᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᎥᎢᏒᎢ ᎢᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎢᏳᎵᏍᏙᏗ. ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅ ᏰᎵᏊ ᎠᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏄᎾᏰᎯᏍᏛᎾ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎬᎢ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬ, ᏰᎵᏆ ᎢᏯᏛᏁᏗ ᏙᎯ ᎠᏕᏗ ᏄᏁᏌᏴᏢ ᎡᎳᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ -20 °C.

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᏥᏚᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎠᏯᏖᎾ ᏗᏗᎦᎴᏴ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᎡᏆ ᎤᎳᏂᎬᎬ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏓᎦᏘᎴᎬ ᎢᏳᎾᏛᏁᎵᏓᏍᏗ Ꮭ ᎦᏲᎵᎨ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ hardiness.

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫEdit

 
ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎩᎦᎨ-throated ᎾᎾᎢ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ

ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏴᏫ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎾᎥᎢ ᎠᏍᎪᎳᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ, ᎠᎩᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᎵᎮᎵᏥᏓᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎦᏎᏍᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ colourful ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᏩᎴᎳ ᏫᎵ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎠᏍᎦᏯ-ᎪᏢᏅᎯ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩᎾ ᎨᏒ ᎩᎦᎨ ᎠᏂᏏᏴᏫᎭ. ᏗᎾᏙᎳᎩ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ ᎤᎾᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᏌᏊ ᎢᎦᏛ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᏅᎩ ᎢᎦᏛᎭ ᎠᎹ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ easiest ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᎵᏢᏍᎩ ᎠᎹ, ᎾᎯᏳᎢ ᎤᏁᏌᏴᏟ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎤᏓᎷᎸ ᏓᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎯᎠ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ. ᎠᏟᎶᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏟᏐᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎤᎶᏐᏅ ᎠᏂᎲᏍᎬ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ ᏫᎵ ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏛᏍᏗ ᎧᎵ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎠᎾᎵᏐᏈᎸᏍᎬ. ᎤᎦᎾᏍᏛ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᏐᎢ ᎬᎾᏬᏍᎬ ᎤᏁᎬ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ, ᏯᏛᎿ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᏚᎵᏏ, ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᏄᎵᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᏂᎬᏂᏏᏍᎬ ᎠᏂ ᎡᏍᎦ ᎢᎬᏁᎯ. ᎢᎦᏛ ᎠᏓᎾᏅᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᏂᎩᏍᏘ ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎩᎦᎨ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎡᎵᏉ. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ nutrients, ᎠᎴ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ nutrients ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏍᎧᏱ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏟᏌᏅᎯ nutrients ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎡᎵᏉ. ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ, ᏂᎬᏅ ᎤᏁᎬ (ᎤᏓᏅᎦᎸᏓ granulated ᏩᏚᎵᏏ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎧᎵᏎᏥ) ᎧᎵᏎᏥ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎪᏢᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᏗᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ ᎣᎦᎾᎯᏎᏗ.

ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ rinsed ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏁᏟᏴᏓ ᏑᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᏗ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏔᏂᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᎥᎢ ᏔᎵ ᏦᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᎢᎦ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᏙᏯᏗᎳ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ. ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎤᏲᏨᎯ ᏩᎴᎳ, ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏗᎾ ᎾᏍᏋ soaked ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎪᎷᏩᏛᏓ chlorine ᎤᏁᎬ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ ᎠᏂᎦᏲᎵ ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᏏᏅᏙ, ᎠᎴ ᏞᎠᎨᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏃ ᎬᎿᎨ ᎦᎳᏅᎯ ᎦᎾᏄᎪᎦ. ᏩᎴᎳ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏗᏓᏅᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎵᏍᏕᎸᏙᏗ Ꮎ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏚᏅᎦᎸᎲ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎣᎳ, ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ Ꮝ ᏄᏍᏛ ᎠᎩᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎣᎯᏍᏗ ᎧᎵᏬᎯ ᎠᏂ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎹᏱ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎠᎫᎩᏍᏗ ᎠᎹ.

 
ᎠᎨᏴ ᎩᎦᎨ-throated ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎳᏫᏛᏓ; ᎠᏓᏚᎬ ᎪᏪᎵ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏣᏄᎳ ᎯᎠ wingbeats

ᎤᏣᏘ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎤᏎᎸᎩ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎠᏓᏃᎯᏎᏗ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏰᎵ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎾᎢ Hummingbirds.net.

ᏩᎴᎳ ᏱᏓᏟᎶᏍᏔᏅ tvga ᎾᎾᎯ ᎠᏝ ᏗᏝᎢ ᎠᏗ ᎠᎴ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ trapped. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎨᏒᎢ ᏂᎬᎢ ᎤᏬᎯᏳᏅ Ꮎ ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᏅᏌ ᎦᎵᏓᏍᏔᏅ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏛᎢ (ᎤᏠᏱᎭ ᎩᎦᎨ-ᏗᎧᏃᏗ) ᎠᏍᏚᏗ-ᏣᏥᏲᎯᏍᏗ ᎫᎭᎸ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᎠᏥᎸᏍᎩ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏁᎳᎩ ᏩᎴᎳ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎠᎩᏍᏗᏱ trapped ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎠᏐᏴᎢ Ꮎ ᎿᏛᎦ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏒ ᏂᎦᎥᏇ ᎩᎦᎨ. ᏌᏊ ᎢᏳᏩᎫᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ, ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᎾᏍᎬᏘ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏰᎵ ᏄᎵᏂᎬᎬᎾ ᏗᏓᎩᏯᏍᏗ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏤᎵ ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎣᏓᏅᏛ ᎯᎳᎪ ᎢᏳ threatened ᎠᎴ trapped ᎨᏒᎢ ᏨᎦ upward. ᎪᎯ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎥᎴᏂᏙᎲ-ᎦᏂᏰᎩ ᏄᏍᏗᏓᏅ ᎾᏍᎩᎾᎢ ᏩᎴᎳ, ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏅᏌ ᏰᎵᏇ ᏗᏙᎳᎩ ᎤᏗᏒᏅᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᎱᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᏍᏆᎳᎢ ᎠᎴᏫᏍᏙᏗ ᎢᏳᏩᎧᏗ, ᏰᎵᏊ ᏱᎩ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎤᏍᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏑᏟᎶᏛ. ᎢᏳᏃ trapped ᏩᎴᎳ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎭᏫᏂᏗᏢ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎢᏳᏓᎵᎭ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎦᏂᏴᏛ ᎤᏓᏂᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ ᏙᏯᏗᏢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎦᎾᎬᎢ ᎢᏯᏦᏊ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏜᏅᏛ ᎠᏰᎵ cupped ᏧᏃᏰᏂ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ.

ᎢᏳᏃ ᎯᎠ ᏥᏍᏆ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎦᏟᏐᏗᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎠᏙᏯᏅᎯᏗᏍᏗ, ᎤᏝᏅᏓᏕᎲ ᎨᏒᎢ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏝ ᏗᏝᎢ ᎠᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎦᏔᎲᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᏄᏉᏫᏐᎬ ᎯᎠ ᏓᏨᏍᏛ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏫᎵ ᎦᏙᎯ, ᎠᎴ ᏰᎵᏇ ᎾᏍᏋ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎬᏗᏍᎬᎢ ᎠᏨᏍᏛ ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏴ ᏓᏥᏲᏒᎩ. (ᏗᏓᎴᎲᏍᎬ: Hummingbirds.net)

ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯEdit

 
ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎤᏁᎬ-ᎦᏛᎢ ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ,
Monteverde, Costa Rica

ᎧᏃᎮᎸᎯ, ᏩᎴᎳ ᎨᏒᎩ ᎾᏀᏭᏅᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ Apodiformes, ᎦᏙ ᎤᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇ ᎢᎦᎢ ᎨᏐ ᎯᎠ ᎦᏥᏄᎳ. ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎯᎠ ᎪᎯᏊ ᎢᏴ ᏥᎩ Sibley-Ahlquist ᎠᏓᏁᎳᏅᎯ, ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ separated ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏤ ᎠᏓᏅᏍᏗ, Trochiliformes.

ᎾᎿᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᎵ 325 ᎠᎴ 340 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᏩᎴᎳ, ᎥᎵᏍᎦᏍᏙᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ taxonomic viewpoint, ᎤᏂᏯᏙᎸ ᎾᎾᎯ ᏔᎵ subfamilies, ᎯᎠ ᎠᏲᎯᏍᏙᏗ (subfamily Phaethornithinae, 34 ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏑᏓᎵ genera), ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᏫᏚᏳᎪᏛ ᏩᎴᎳ (subfamily Trochilinae, ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎠᏂᏐᎢ).

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᎥᎢ evolutionary biologists ᎤᎭ ᏚᏙᎳᏩᏛᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎠᎺᎵᎨ, ᎠᎴ ᎯᎠ ᎡᏆ ᎤᏂᎪᏗᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᎿᎢ. ᏂᎦᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᏧᏣᏔᏊ ᎤᏴᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᏁᎵᏒ ᎾᏍᏋ ᏗᎦᏃᏢᎩ ᎾᏞᎬ ᎠᏓᎴᏂᏍᎬ, ᎠᎴ ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎢᎬᏂᏏᏍᎩ (ᎠᏍᏓᏩᏗᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏠᏱ ᎠᎯᎸᏍᏗᏱ ᏠᎨᏏ ᎠᏂᎩᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎤᏟ ᎢᎦᎢ 'tsuqagutanvsv' ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎵᏍᏆᏗᏍᎬ ᎬᏙᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎾᏞᎬ) ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᏗᎧᏃᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᏗ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎵᏍᏛ ᎯᎠ ᏙᎪᏩᎸ.

ᎠᏛᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏗᎫᎪᏙᏗ ᎢᎬᏁᏗ ᎤᎭ ᎤᏓᏎᎮᎸ Ꮎ ᏩᎴᎳ diverged ᏂᏛᎴᏅᏓ ᏐᎢ ᎯᎸᏍᎩ ᏥᏍᏆ 30 40 ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎢᏳ ᏥᎨᏒ, ᎠᎴ lyudetiyvda ᎪᎯᏳᏙ ᎤᎭ ᎪᎯᏳᏔᏅ ᎦᎶᏄᎮᏛ. lyudetiyvda ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᎭ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏩᏛᏗ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ, ᎠᎴ ᎢᏳᏩᎪᏗ ᏝᏱᎪᎯᎩ, ᎠᎦᏴᎳᎯᎨᏍᏙᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᏰᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᏗᎦᏂᏴᏗ identifiable ᏥᏄᏍᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ. ᎾᎯᏳᎢ, ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ 2004, ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ. Gerald Mayr ᎯᎠ Senkenberg ᏂᎬᏩᏍᏛ ᎧᏃᎮᏍᎩ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Frankfurt ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ identified ᏔᎵ 30-ᎢᏳᏆᏗᏅᏓ-ᏑᏕᏘᏴᏓ-ᎠᎦᏴᎵ ᎠᏓᏥ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎴᏴᏔᏅᎯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᏂᏚᎵᏍᏔᏅ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ. ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᎪᎯ ᎠᎧᎵᏏᏐᏗ ᏩᎴᎳ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩ, Eurotrochilus inexpectatus ("ᏅᎦᏖᏃᎲᎾ European ᏩᎴᎳ"), ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ ᎠᏂᏅᎢ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎤᏓᏂᏝᏅ ᎠᏌᎯᏍᏗ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Stuttgart. ᎤᏅᏌ ᎠᏰᎲ ᏭᏪᏙᎢ unearthed ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎦᏓᏆᎵ ᎦᏙ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ Frauenweiler, ᎤᎦᎾᏭ Heidelberg.

ᏠᎨᏏ ᎢᏧᎳᎭ ᏗᏂᏱᎴᎩEdit

ᏩᎴᎳ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᎢᏰᎵᏍᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎥᎦᏔᎲᎢEdit

 
ᏩᎴᎳ ᏓᎾᏎᏍᎬ ᎾᎾᎢ Nazca

ᎠᎪᏩᏛᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎾᏍᏇEdit

ᏫᏓᏎᎸᎢEdit

  1. Warrick, D.R., Tobalske, B.W., ᏄᎾᎳᏂᎬᎬ, D.R., (2005) "ᎩᎶ ᏂᏓᏳᏅᏅ ᎪᏪᎵ: ᎠᏥᎸ ᎠᏓᏪᎳᎩᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏂᎦᏛᎢ ᏩᎴᎳ" ᎤᏁᎳᏅ ᎤᏬᏢᏅ 435: 1094-1097[1]

ᎤᏓᏎᎦᏤᏗ ᏗᏕᎬᏔᏛEdit